SRI PAMPAPATHI - - HAMPAMBA
Within a few years after the arrival of Alla-Udin -Khilji in the kingdom of Yadavagiri in the year 1296, entire Southern India was ravaged by the invaders. Southern Indian culture and religion were endangered by this foreign invasion were endangered by this foreign protect themselves, their religion and culture. It was in this backdrop that Vijaynagar was founded. It flourished for more than two hundred years.
The kingdom of Vijaynagar was ruled by four dynasties. The first one was Sangama dynasty which was founded by Harihara the first .
It is said that Sangama came from warangal. however , the inscription do not lend credence to this belife . Sangama belonged to the yadu dynasty and the yadus were kannadigas.
Sangama was a petty chieftain who was highly respected . He had five sons. hariharan , bukka , Kempanna, Marappa , and Muddappa. harihara and Bukka played a vital role in establishing the Vijayanagara Kingdom . Prior to this , Harihara and bukka served the Hoysalas Whose confidence they enjoyed .
According to shringeri inscription , Harihara founded the vijayanagara kingdom in the shalivahana saka 1258 during the Dhatunama samvatsara, on the seventh dat of vaishaka, i.e on the 18th of April 1336 A.D he followed the government rules of the hoysalas . virupaxa of Hampi and channakeshava of belur, the family deities of the Hoysalas , become the family deities of the Sangama dynasty too . there was also a caste relation between the Hoysalas and the Sangama dynasty.
It is fact that shri Vidyaranya, the religious teacher of sangama dynasty , took an active part on the establishment of the empire and in fact , was the main cause for the establishment of this kingdom . But the fact that Vijaynagara ,formerly known as Vidynagara, was named after shri vidyaranya. That it was named after shri vidyaranya is recorded in some onscriptions.
Many inscriptions reveal that the kings of Vijayanagar were devoted to shri vidyaranya , the religious preceptor of Shringeri , and had given many gifts in his honor . Hence it could be concluded that Sri vidyaranya himself the actual founder the vijayanagar kingdom.
VIJAYANAGAR , THE CAPITAL
It is situated on the southern bank of the river tungabhadra and is surrounded by rocky mountains . Earlier , anegundi , the near by ancient city, was the capital . Later the capital was shifted to Hampi from Anegundi. According to mythology this area was pampa sarovara and the capital of vali mentioned in the ramayan. It was called pampa kshetra . An 11th century inscription and a 7th century chalukya inscription call ot pampa kshetra . According to mahakula. literary source and some other inscription give it varios names virupaxapura. Hosapattana , hosa hampi pattana , hastinavathi , hampi hastinavathi, kunjarakona, vidyangar , Anegundi , etc.
The founders of vijayanagar were selfless and broad minded . their aim was to protect culture , increase knowledge and encourage literature . Their royal seal bore the picture of varaha since it is belived that god vishnu incarnated as varaha to destroy the gaint hiranya who had confiscated the earth . this seal singnified their goal.
SANGAM DYNASTY SALUWA DYNASTY
HARIHARA 1 : He ruled from 1336 to 1356 . During his reign his brother , who were loyal to him , looked after various regions , Kempanna governed andhra , Bukka governed the central region , marappa took care of western region and muddappa manage the coastal area. Harihara's regime was a model one.
NARASIMHARAYA : By 1447 the kingdom had grown weak owing to the inefficiency of king virupaxa as well as the invasions of the bahamani rulers , Salwa narasimharaya was a general known for his valour. He had become popular in the kingdom . By 1447 he had become the rulers of the eastern and the northern areas. He marched on the capital and dethroned virupaxa. He ruled from 1485 to 1490 . His reign was not so successful. Many chieftains rose in rebellion against him.
NARASIMHA II : Narasimharaya had two sons, narasanayaka of tulu dynasty who was the minster of Narasimharaya had been appointed as their guardian. But narasanayaka began to rule as of he were the king himself . The elder of the two sons was killed himself . The elder of the two sons was killed and narasimha the second came to the throne. He could not command due respect . He died in 1503. Afterwards his son viranarasimha took the reins of the kingdom.
VIRANARASIMHARAYA: He was the first king of tulu dynasty . his father was a famous chieftain of saluwas .He had to contend with many rebellions . in 1509 he died accidentally. There was nothing note worthy in his short rule of four years.
He ascended the throne on 8th August 1509 , on the eve of krishnashtami. At the time of coronation he was just twenty-five. Though there were marks of small pox on his face he was handsome.
He was hospitable to foreigners. He was an embodiment of politeness. He was a just and able ruler. He was well built and of moderate height. He was well versed in the art of horse riding and fishing.
There was instability in the kingdom at time of coronation. so he stayed in the capital and studied the social and political conditions of the state . At this time mohammad sha and usuf Adil Khan united with a view to defeating the new king .in the ensuring battle the army of vijayanagara decimated the enemy . Usuf Adil khan died and Bijapur became weak.
Krishnadevaraya conquered Raichur in 1512 and then annexed Gulbarga easily. Being a shrehid man Krishnasevaraya set free Sultan Mohammed and reinstated him as king. So the sultan becomes his friend. All internal feuds stopped and the chieftains and tributary kings buried their hatchets. He got the title “ yavanarajya Sthapanacharya”. Which means the founder of the Muslim Kingdom . The sultans of Bahamani kingdom . krisnadevaraya took it back in 1510 . Then he defeated and killed Gangaraja of ummatur and annexed penugonda to his kingdom . After wards he invaded Shivasamudra and Srirangapattana. He Consolidated all these territories with Srirangapattana He consolidated all these territories with Srirangapattana as the capital.
He led the army himself and conquered many forts. Some of them and are Udayagiri , Kondavidu , vijayavada , Kondapalli and rajamahendri . Though these forts were formidabale they could not with stand the onslaught of the army of Vijayanagara . Further, kataka was over whelmed and king prataparudra entred into a treaty with krishnadevaraya who married prataparudras daughter Jaganmohini . While Krishnadevaraya was absorbed in his conquest, Ismail Adil shah of bijapur seized Raichur. On hearing this krishnadevaraya returned and took back Raichur. Adil shah suffered heavy losses in this war. Krishnadevaraya could win easily because of his well organized army and fine-tuned techniques of attack. He led from the front and rewarded brave fighter. He took good care of the injured soldiers. Naturally, all were loyal to him.
He had divided the income of the state into four parts . Two parts were for the army , one for religious gifts and rituals and one for the welfare of his subjects . He traveled all over the kingdom to find out the grievances of his subjects and redress them. He implemented plans for the development of agriculture and commerce. The prices of commodities were low. Many foreign travelers like paes and Nueniz have described in glowing terms the wealth of the kingdom, the splendour of the royal court, the army and the splendour of the royal court, the army and the peaceful and happy life of people.
Krishnadevaraya had an able and loyal adviser in Timmarasa whom he called “ Appaji ” (Revered Father ) . It was Thimmarasa who had once saved Krishnadevaraya. In 1509 Viranarasimha , Who wanted to enthrone his eight year old son , had asked Thimmarasa to remove the eyeballs of Krishnadevaraya . Then Thimmarasa hid Krishnadevaraya and showed Narasimha the eyeballs of a Lamba . This trick saved the state.
Krishnadevaraya was a genius in many respects. He was a scholar on telugu and Saskrit languages . he composed “Amukta - Malyada” and jambuvati Kalyana . “Amukta- Malyada” , which is in telugu , comprises of Mahabharata , Dharmashastra , and political science based on shukraniti . His Court was graced by Brahmin , Shaiva and Jain poets . He had the little ‘ Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana ’ .
He was a pious man. He made magnanimous gifts and donations for the renovation of old temples and for building new once , In memory of his caronation he built an auditorium in Virupaksha Temple and a towers at its gate . He built temple of Krishnaswamy and vijaya vittala also . In memory of his mother Nagaladevi He constructed nagalapuri , now know as Hospet .
The reign of twenty years was unique in the history of southern India . By his expeditions he strengthened the remote corners of his Kingdom . Before he could build an unskable kingdom he died of illeness , the years was 1529 . After his the death decline of the empire began.
For administrative convenience the kingdom was divided into four parts as rajya, Mandala, seema and sthala . Each Rajya was under a chieftain . Each division had separate officers for revenue , defence and taxes . Though different taxes were levied , land revenue was the main source of income . The defence force was well orgnised and it was under the control of a chieftain . Newniz has desribed the defence force as fallows ; “ The defence force consisted of solidiers , cavalry , elephants and artillery . Nearly one lakh solidiers , cavalry of one thousand knights and five hundred elephants were engaged in the war of the raichur , He had six thousand watchmen for the palace , twenty thousand shields men , three thousand elephant drivers , three hundred horse trainers and two hundred potters, carpenters and washmen .
There were judical courts and judges in each state . The governors and ministers also worked as judges . Generally , rigid rules were followed . Death punishments were given for serious crimes . Police system was in practice . Police officers like swords men , watchmen and state watchmen looked after law and order . Chieftains protected the borders .
Paes has made the following observation , The sight of the royal court was splendid . Wrestling competion, the evening torch exhibition , mock battles of cavalry , the sight of different colours of light of gunpowder , the procession of governors coming in chariots , rear guard with royal horses , beautiful ladies bearing lightstands , elephants paying homage to the king , and rest made me feel I was dreaming .
During Krishnadevaraya ‘s reign women were well versed in archery , wrestling , astrology , music and dance. In addition , they worked as body guards , Judges and even watch – women . Poligamy was in vogue among the rich . Child marriage was common , as was dowry .
He was not a fanatic. Though he was a vaishnava he encouraged and patronized different religions. He had patronised both Vyasarayamath and sringeimath . All castes and communities lived in harmony . He had appointed many muslims as officers. People of different religions could follow their religions undeterred .