SRI PAMPAPATHI - - HAMPAMBA
Within a few years after the arrival of Alla-Udin -Khilji in the kingdom of Yadavagiri in the year 1296, entire Southern India was ravaged by the invaders. Southern Indian culture and religion were endangered by this foreign invasion were endangered by this foreign protect themselves, their religion and culture. It was in this backdrop that Vijaynagar was founded. It flourished for more than two hundred years.
The kingdom of Vijaynagar was ruled by four dynasties. The first one was Sangama dynasty which was founded by Harihara the first .
It is said that Sangama came from warangal. however , the inscription do not lend credence to this belife . Sangama belonged to the yadu dynasty and the yadus were kannadigas.
Sangama was a petty chieftain who was highly respected . He had five sons. hariharan , bukka , Kempanna, Marappa , and Muddappa. harihara and Bukka played a vital role in establishing the Vijayanagara Kingdom . Prior to this , Harihara and bukka served the Hoysalas Whose confidence they enjoyed .
According to shringeri inscription , Harihara founded the vijayanagara kingdom in the shalivahana saka 1258 during the Dhatunama samvatsara, on the seventh dat of vaishaka, i.e on the 18th of April 1336 A.D he followed the government rules of the hoysalas . virupaxa of Hampi and channakeshava of belur, the family deities of the Hoysalas , become the family deities of the Sangama dynasty too . there was also a caste relation between the Hoysalas and the Sangama dynasty.
It is fact that shri Vidyaranya, the religious teacher of sangama dynasty , took an active part on the establishment of the empire and in fact , was the main cause for the establishment of this kingdom . But the fact that Vijaynagara ,formerly known as Vidynagara, was named after shri vidyaranya. That it was named after shri vidyaranya is recorded in some onscriptions.
Many inscriptions reveal that the kings of Vijayanagar were devoted to shri vidyaranya , the religious preceptor of Shringeri , and had given many gifts in his honor . Hence it could be concluded that Sri vidyaranya himself the actual founder the vijayanagar kingdom.
VIJAYANAGAR , THE CAPITAL
It is situated on the southern bank of the river tungabhadra and is surrounded by rocky mountains . Earlier , anegundi , the near by ancient city, was the capital . Later the capital was shifted to Hampi from Anegundi. According to mythology this area was pampa sarovara and the capital of vali mentioned in the ramayan. It was called pampa kshetra . An 11th century inscription and a 7th century chalukya inscription call ot pampa kshetra . According to mahakula. literary source and some other inscription give it varios names virupaxapura. Hosapattana , hosa hampi pattana , hastinavathi , hampi hastinavathi, kunjarakona, vidyangar , Anegundi , etc.
The founders of vijayanagar were selfless and broad minded . their aim was to protect culture , increase knowledge and encourage literature . Their royal seal bore the picture of varaha since it is belived that god vishnu incarnated as varaha to destroy the gaint hiranya who had confiscated the earth . this seal singnified their goal.
SANGAM DYNASTY SALUWA DYNASTY
HARIHARA 1 : He ruled from 1336 to 1356 . During his reign his brother , who were loyal to him , looked after various regions , Kempanna governed andhra , Bukka governed the central region , marappa took care of western region and muddappa manage the coastal area. Harihara's regime was a model one.
NARASIMHARAYA : By 1447 the kingdom had grown weak owing to the inefficiency of king virupaxa as well as the invasions of the bahamani rulers , Salwa narasimharaya was a general known for his valour. He had become popular in the kingdom . By 1447 he had become the rulers of the eastern and the northern areas. He marched on the capital and dethroned virupaxa. He ruled from 1485 to 1490 . His reign was not so successful. Many chieftains rose in rebellion against him.
NARASIMHA II : Narasimharaya had two sons, narasanayaka of tulu dynasty who was the minster of Narasimharaya had been appointed as their guardian. But narasanayaka began to rule as of he were the king himself . The elder of the two sons was killed himself . The elder of the two sons was killed and narasimha the second came to the throne. He could not command due respect . He died in 1503. Afterwards his son viranarasimha took the reins of the kingdom.
VIRANARASIMHARAYA : He was the first king of tulu dynasty . his father was a famous chieftain of saluwas .He had to contend with many rebellions . in 1509 he died accidentally. There was nothing note worthy in his short rule of four years.
He ascended the throne on 8th August 1509 , on the eve of krishnashtami. At the time of coronation he was just twenty-five. Though there were marks of small pox on his face he was handsome.
He was hospitable to foreigners. He was an embodiment of politeness. He was a just and able ruler. He was well built and of moderate height. He was well versed in the art of horse riding and fishing.
There was instability in the kingdom at time of coronation. so he stayed in the capital and studied the social and political conditions of the state . At this time mohammad sha and usuf Adil Khan united with a view to defeating the new king .in the ensuring battle the army of vijayanagara decimated the enemy . Usuf Adil khan died and Bijapur became weak.
Krishnadevaraya conquered Raichur in 1512 and then annexed Gulbarga easily. Being a shrehid man Krishnasevaraya set free Sultan Mohammed and reinstated him as king. So the sultan becomes his friend. All internal feuds stopped and the chieftains and tributary kings buried their hatchets. He got the title “ yavanarajya Sthapanacharya”. Which means the founder of the Muslim Kingdom . The sultans of Bahamani kingdom . krisnadevaraya took it back in 1510 . Then he defeated and killed Gangaraja of ummatur and annexed penugonda to his kingdom . After wards he invaded Shivasamudra and Srirangapattana. He Consolidated all these territories with Srirangapattana He consolidated all these territories with Srirangapattana as the capital.
He led the army himself and conquered many forts. Some of them and are Udayagiri , Kondavidu , vijayavada , Kondapalli and rajamahendri . Though these forts were formidabale they could not with stand the onslaught of the army of Vijayanagara . Further, kataka was over whelmed and king prataparudra entred into a treaty with krishnadevaraya who married prataparudras daughter Jaganmohini . While Krishnadevaraya was absorbed in his conquest, Ismail Adil shah of bijapur seized Raichur. On hearing this krishnadevaraya returned and took back Raichur. Adil shah suffered heavy losses in this war. Krishnadevaraya could win easily because of his well organized army and fine-tuned techniques of attack. He led from the front and rewarded brave fighter. He took good care of the injured soldiers. Naturally, all were loyal to him.
He had divided the income of the state into four parts . Two parts were for the army , one for religious gifts and rituals and one for the welfare of his subjects . He traveled all over the kingdom to find out the grievances of his subjects and redress them. He implemented plans for the development of agriculture and commerce. The prices of commodities were low. Many foreign travelers like paes and Nueniz have described in glowing terms the wealth of the kingdom, the splendour of the royal court, the army and the splendour of the royal court, the army and the peaceful and happy life of people.
Krishnadevaraya had an able and loyal adviser in Timmarasa whom he called “ Appaji ” (Revered Father ) . It was Thimmarasa who had once saved Krishnadevaraya. In 1509 Viranarasimha , Who wanted to enthrone his eight year old son , had asked Thimmarasa to remove the eyeballs of Krishnadevaraya . Then Thimmarasa hid Krishnadevaraya and showed Narasimha the eyeballs of a Lamba . This trick saved the state.
Krishnadevaraya was a genius in many respects. He was a scholar on telugu and Saskrit languages . he composed “Amukta - Malyada” and jambuvati Kalyana . “Amukta- Malyada” , which is in telugu , comprises of Mahabharata , Dharmashastra , and political science based on shukraniti . His Court was graced by Brahmin , Shaiva and Jain poets . He had the little ‘ Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana ’ .
He was a pious man. He made magnanimous gifts and donations for the renovation of old temples and for building new once , In memory of his caronation he built an auditorium in Virupaksha Temple and a towers at its gate . He built temple of Krishnaswamy and vijaya vittala also . In memory of his mother Nagaladevi He constructed nagalapuri , now know as Hospet .
The reign of twenty years was unique in the history of southern India . By his expeditions he strengthened the remote corners of his Kingdom . Before he could build an unskable kingdom he died of illeness , the years was 1529 . After his the death decline of the empire began.
For administrative convenience the kingdom was divided into four parts as rajya, Mandala, seema and sthala . Each Rajya was under a chieftain . Each division had separate officers for revenue , defence and taxes . Though different taxes were levied , land revenue was the main source of income . The defence force was well orgnised and it was under the control of a chieftain . Newniz has desribed the defence force as fallows ; “ The defence force consisted of solidiers , cavalry , elephants and artillery . Nearly one lakh solidiers , cavalry of one thousand knights and five hundred elephants were engaged in the war of the raichur , He had six thousand watchmen for the palace , twenty thousand shields men , three thousand elephant drivers , three hundred horse trainers and two hundred potters, carpenters and washmen .
There were judical courts and judges in each state . The governors and ministers also worked as judges . Generally , rigid rules were followed . Death punishments were given for serious crimes . Police system was in practice . Police officers like swords men , watchmen and state watchmen looked after law and order . Chieftains protected the borders .
Paes has made the following observation , The sight of the royal court was splendid . Wrestling competion, the evening torch exhibition , mock battles of cavalry , the sight of different colours of light of gunpowder , the procession of governors coming in chariots , rear guard with royal horses , beautiful ladies bearing lightstands , elephants paying homage to the king , and rest made me feel I was dreaming .
During Krishnadevaraya ‘s reign women were well versed in archery , wrestling , astrology , music and dance. In addition , they worked as body guards , Judges and even watch – women . Poligamy was in vogue among the rich . Child marriage was common , as was dowry .
He was not a fanatic. Though he was a vaishnava he encouraged and patronized different religions. He had patronised both Vyasarayamath and sringeimath . All castes and communities lived in harmony . He had appointed many muslims as officers. People of different religions could follow their religions undeterred .
After krishnadevaraya his step – brother Achyutaraya came to the throne . He wore the crown first at tirupati and then at kalahasti in 1534. After the death of ismail the dispute that had started between mallu and ibrahim helped Achyutaraya to comquer Raichur . During his rule the chieftains of Madurai, tanjore and lkkeri became independent . He was called ‘navakoti Narayana’ as the treasury was full. The court poet Rajanatha Dindima praised him in his poetic work “ Achyutarajabhyudaya ” however , trade and commerce dwindled . People suffered at the hands of thieves . He died in 1543.
After the death of Achyutaraya, his son Sadasivaraya succeeded him to the throne Since he was a boy his uncle Sakalarasa imprisoned him . Ramaraya came to Sadasiva’s resue and waged war against Sakalarasa who died after four battles .
Sadasivaraya ruled from 1543 to 1571 . He was only a nominal king . All the powers vested with Ramaraya who recrited a large number of Muslim in his army . He had a desire to push muslim kings to the north of river Krishna. The Muslim kings united and attacked the kingdom . The war took place at Rakkasatangadi on Tuesday the 23rd of January 1565 . Ramaraya fought the army of Ahmadnagar whil his brother tirumala faced the armies of bidar and golkonda . Another brother Venkaradri took on the army of bijapur . The muslim in the Vijayanagar army joined the enemy and so Ramaraya suffered defeat . His head was cut off and brandished in the battle field. More than one lakh soldiers died there. Thirumala escaped to chandragiri with the welth of the empire . He took with him the emperor Sadasivaraya and the ladies of the royal family . vijayanagara was looted by the marauders for six months. All the people ran away from the capital . tirumala instigated his son venkata to kill Sadasivaraya . thus the tulu dynasty came to an end.
Hampi belongs to first place Anegundi in gangavathi taluk of koppala district tourist getdown at Huligi station come the to resort 10 km only . Also hospet station there are buses to ganagavthi and hospet from all corners of karnataka some traines connected Hospet to Hubli , Hyderbad , Banglore , Channai , Bombay , Delhi. Recently airpoert will opened at toranagal near to this resort 30 km only and cross the river at virupaxa temple , now new bridge will coming at Anegundi then new tourism world will come up this side .
Hampi is about 10 KM from Hulgi station via virupapapur gaddi(hampi Island ) . From ganagavathi 17 KM from via virupapur gaddi (hampi island). The state Government runs buses between Hampi - Hospet from six in the morning till eight in the evening . A sight – seeing bus is run by the Tourism Development corporation . There are routes between hampi and hospet : one via Kaddirampura and the other via Kamalapur . A guide book is needed for those who wish to go on foot as the sites are spread over a large area.
Buses from Hospet terminate near this temple . the magnificent tower is visible from a distance . The tower is 165 ft high ; the breadth is 150ft and the length 120 ft . It has eleven storeys. It is called “ Bistappaya tower ” . It is not known who built it or when it was built . It was renovated many times . times , It was also renovated by Krishnadevaraya in 1510.
The premises are paved with stone . the compound is 210 ft long and breadth of the inner area is 135 ft , in the middle there is a canal through which the water of the Tungabhadra flows . The canal is covered with stones . There are rooms for poligrims in the premises. On the right side is the phalapuja mantapa. Also called Kalyana mantapa. There is also a well.
The temple has two towers and two compounds. The second one is the Raya tower . krishnadevaraya built it at the time of his coronation . On crossing this you will be in the second compound where there is a flag post and a lamp post . On the left there are temples of Pataleshware , Muktinarasimha and suryanaraya. On the right side there are temples of Laxminarasimha and Mahishasura mardini.
The temple in front of the tower gate is that of Lord virupaksha. Lord Virupaksha is also called Pampapati . This is the oldest temple in hampi . the pillars were cutout with the help of sort of lathe machine . It is an ancient temple of the Hoysala period . Some parts of this temple were built by Harihara the first . krishnadevaraya built a stage for public assembly.
The are steps for the entrance to the temple on eastern , southern and northern sides . The temple has a Navaranga (Middle Hall) , Shukansi and Garbhagudi ( inner Sanctum). The deity is lord virupaxa, According to mythology a girl called Pampadevi did penance for shiva who married her . Shiva remained here in the form of linga . hence the name pampapathi , and thereby Pampakshetra or Hampi.
To its north you will find two temples ; one for Pampadevi and the other for Bhuvaneshwari . On the right side there are Navagrahas (nine planet ) . The tower in the north is called the tower of kanakagiri . in this tower there are idols of Ratnagarbha Ganapathi and Devi . On the right there are empty temples . on the back side of the temple there are steps . If you go up and turn to your right you will see a dark chamber . There is a hole in its eastern wall. The light that comes through this hole falls on the western wall where the shadow of tower appears upside down . Further up the steps you can see the temple of Vidyaranya . the door to the south leads a pond called “ Loka Pawana Teertha”.
The road in front of the temple is the royal road flanked by hotels and shops. the road is about one kilometers long . Up ahead is the matanga hill with pandals carved out in chalukya style . the statue of bull infront of the temple is called “ Eduru Basava ” in kannada.
There are steps to the western side of this hill. At the top of the hill there is the temple of veerabhuvaneswara. From the top of the hill one can see the west the tower of Pampapathi , the chariot road , and hemakoota; to the north of the river ; to the east the temple of Achyutaraya ; and to the south the Elephant stable , the royal fort and ruins . It is really a breath taking view.
If we climb a down and take the chariot road a turn to the right leads to the river . We reach the temple of Kodandarama. It is about 60 ft above the level of the river . I front of the temple the river flows between two rocky hills and forms a pond, During the rainy season when the river is the water enters the temple . As the river flows rapidly along the hill it forms a whirlpool . The figures of rama , laxamana and Seetha have been engraed . These statues sre about 6ft . high the temple was built by chikka venkatapathiraya of Araveedu dynasty the tower and hall were added later.
This temple is behind kodanda rama temple at a slightly higher elevation . the idol of Maruti in this temple was installed by sri vyasaraya during the regime of krishnadevaraya. Nearly there are temples of Ranganatha and Ananthashayana.
If we go ahead we can see on the right side a dilapidated tower and a temple . This is the temple of Achyuta. On either side there are rows of stone pandals . This was the market of pearls and gems . It was called “ sule bazaar ” ( The market of prostitute ) . The reasons for such an odd name is not known.
TEMPLE OF ACHYUTARAYA
Adjacent to the entrance there is a Kalyana Mantap. On crossing the second gate we can see Achyuta temple . Achyutaraya , the younger brother of krishnadevaraya , built this temple between 1513 and 1538 . It is only an educated guess based on its similarity to vittala Temple built by Krishnadevaraya.
Here too find monolithic twin pillars. On the sides of the pillars the story of Dashavatara has been etched. On the base of the mantapa are the pictures of elephants, horses, Arabian merchants and such others. The ceiling of the rangamantapa has collapsed. On the right side is the temple of Laxmi. There is no statue here, as is the case with the one on the western side. If you come out through the southern gate you will find a statue of female deity with ten hands bearing weapons.
Shri Purandara dasa was in Vijayanagara by 1540. He propagated the path of devation through his devational songs , in Kannada. There by he worked for the development of Kannada literature too. The purandara mantapa named after him is on the bank of the tungabhadra. There is a statue of Purandara dasa in this mantapa. Near this place we can see the ruins of the old bridge built by the kings of vijayanagara. It connected Anegundi to Vijayanagar.
Coming up from purandara mantapa if one goes east , one can see a huge frame which looks like a big gate . A stone beam is placed on two vertical and parallel pillars of stone . This is called king ‘s balance. It is said that kings weighed themselves with Gems and Diamonds which were later distributed among the poor.
This is one of the best Sculptures of Phalapuja Mantap and the Kalyanamantap were built by Krishnadevaraya in 1513 after his expedition.
This temple is constructed on a polyhedron foundation. The monolithic pillars have been subtly sculpted. There are figures of angels, lotus, swans, yoga postures and horses etched nicely.
In front of this temple is the famous stone chariot . The sun temple of Konark could have inspired this creation . It is made of rough puartz. Generally , an idol of garuda is found infront of the Vishnu temple but here the stone chariot has been erected. In this chariot pictures of soldiers, hunter, the portugese, the arabs and the Persians have been depicted.
If we go back to virupaxa and walk to the south we reach Hemakunta. There are many temples here. On the eastern side of hemakuta there is Ratnagiri which also has many south we reach “ Kadalekalu Ganapathi ”.
It is a monolithic sculpture. It is 18ft tall and has a big inner sanctum. In the front there is a rangamantapa. On the right side we find sasivekalu ganapati. It has been installed in an open mantapa without an inner sanctum. This 12ft high statue is monolithic.
This temple is on the road to Kamalapur. It is 320 ft. long and 200ft. broad. It is a formidable temple protected by a fort. It was built by Krishnadevaraya in 1523 in memory of his Triumph in the war against Gajapatiraya. This idol of Balakrishna was brought from udayagiri. Now the idol is in the museum of Madras. The rangamantapa is both beautiful and spacious. On many pillars the life story of Krishnadevaraya has been carved in the form of pictures. The carvings are exquisite. There are many small temples in the premises.
Moving towards Kamalapur from Krishna Temple, we see this linga. This is the biggest of all lingas in Hampi. This gorgeous linga is made of black stone. It is nearly 12ft in height. Its inner sanctum has no ceiling. It is always in water since a canal passes through this temple.
It is a very close to badavi linga. It is the biggest idol in Hampi. Its height is 22ft . this was carved by a Brahmin during krishnadevaraya’s regime. Invaders broke this idol. Behind the head there is a serpent with its hood open. Though the statue has no temple now, there must have been a temple in the past. Further down the road we see veerabhadra temple.
This temple was built during the regin of Ramaraya of Araveedu Dynasty. Formerly it was called “ mudda veeranna ‘’. It got destroyed in the spoken language and came to be called ‘ uddana veerabhadra ‘. It is 12ft in height. There are weapons in its hands. By its side there is a statue of daxa.
Near pataleshwara temple two huge boulders lean on to each other. This awe-inspiring sight is a natural creation. They are said to have been of two sisters who turned into stones on making a derogatory remark about Hampi.
THE FORT OF COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF
Beyond the pataleshwara temple there is a formidable square fort called the commanders fort. The watch towers in the four corners have collapsed . the plinths found in the area are guessed to be that of the commander and the mint. Yet another vast plinths is surmised to be that of the royal palace.
HAJARA RAMA TEMPLE
This temple is adjacent to the palace. The reason for this name is not clear. It could be that it is located so close to the palace and the royal family offered worship here. Krishnadevaraya built it in 1513 in memory of his expedition.
It is replete with engravings of yoga postures, Gods. Goddesses and Dashavatara. The forty eight layers of engravings are dominated by vaishnavite cult. Some of these sculptures lack passion. There are some small dilapidated temples nearby. One is that of yellamma.
It is a platform 80 square feet in are and 22ft in height. It was built by krishnadevaraya in memory of his conquest of orissa. The carvings on this platform are just like those in the Hajarama temple. They are also similarly tiered. These pictures are all embossments, hunting scenes, dance postures and mythological pictures are common here.
On the southern side of this platform there are some interesting items of sculpture. In the first line there is a procession of Elephants. In another , some one is bowing to a person on the thronre. On the basis of the Persian cap and the pointed beard, the one bowing can be recognized as a foreigner. Pictures foreign ambassadors have been carved here. On another side scenes of Holi have been etched. Many festivities and competitions were celebrated here. The holes on this platform could have been meant for lighting arrangement. The nearby underground cellar was used for discussing state secrets.
KAMAL MAHAL (LOTUS MAHAL)
To the north of Mahanavami Dibba a fort with high wall is seen. The Lotus Mahal is situated here. It is also called Chitrangini Mahal. This building is a mixture of Hindu and Muslim architecture. It is a two storeyed building build of Moratar. It would be very cool here even in hot water to flow through here. There is facility for hanging curtains at the windows. There must have been a garden around this building once. It could have been a rest hose for queens. The nearby remains might have been the harem. The mortar building in the western corner could been a mint.
It was meant for the royal elephants. There are eleven stables here. All these are neatly interconnected with small doors. This building with arch’s is built of stone and mortar. The ceiling is dome-shaped. The nearby building is said to be quarters for guards.
If we go out the east we come across a temple of Vishnu which is also called the temple of Saraswati. In front of this temple there is an octagonal shaped bath.
It is a beautiful building built of mortar. The architectural style is a mixture of Hindu and Muslim style. There is a pond in the middle for swimming. It is 8ft deep. There is a canal for water to flow outside. There are four outlets at the bottom for the used water to flow out.
It is situated in the road to Kampli from Kamalapura. It was built by Iraguppa the son of the commader-in-chief Baichappa. Bheema’s pictures have been carved here. Further ahead there is a fort gate, some dilapidated temples, and muslim graves. It was set aside for muslims during the period of Ramaraya. It is called “ Turkey Mahal ”.
If we go further on the road to Kampli, the hill that appears on the left is Malyavantha hill. The temple at the top of the hill is Raghunatha temple. This temple has two doors; one to the east and the other to the south. The main gate has a tower over it. In front of the gate there is “ Garudagamba ” ( Piller with an idol of eagle god ).
We have to cross the Tungabhadra at Talari Katti near Ganagitti Mahal to reach Anegundi, a small village now. ( there is a road from Hospet , too) .
SATYA NARAYAN SWAMI TEMPLE
This 10,000 year old ‘Stone Age colony ’ of Dwarfs is situated on a hilltop 20 kms away from the other places of historical importance. A unique construction made from huge slabs of solid rocks, The Mauryar Mane was the home of Dwarfs. A vast colony of the Lilliputians still untouched. Waiting to welcome you home to Mauryar Mane.
It is in Kamalapur. The statues, ancient coins, swords and other artifacts are worth seeing. A miniature replica of the entire area has been created in the middle of the building.
It is 3 miles away from Hospet. This was built across the river Tungabhadra. It is about 2 miles long and 160 ft high. The two hill rocks flaking the dam are called Kailasa and Vaikunta. Vaikunta it is 200 ft high. There is Anjaaneya temple just below the cliff top. The garden at the foot of the dam is small but pleasing. On the side of Kailasa there is a Japanese Style Garden.
Important Nearest Sight Seeing Places to Hampi : Badami, Aihole, Pattadakallu ,Bijapur,Bidar.